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Fig. 1

Exercise equipment is used to strengthen lateral forelimb and shoulder extensor muscles (A, B).

Fig. 2

Canine fitness equipment is used to strengthen hind limb and forelimb muscles using an ordered sequence of exercises (A–D).

Fig. 3

A dog has poor posture when sitting (A) and standing on regular ground (B). Posture is improved when an aerobic step is used to encourage proper “tuck sit” posture (C) followed by standing (D). The standing posture is also improved.

Fig. 4

An arthritic patient is exercised in an underwater treadmill at differing water depths. With insufficient buoyancy (A), the topline is sloping. With deeper water (B), the dog’s posture is correct and comfort increases.

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Prevalence of osteoarthritis is significant and anticipated to continue to increase.

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The authors have no conflict to disclose.


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